Iran’s northern provinces, including the Gilan Province, comprise 26% of the nation’s farmland. Although dramatic and widespread increases in rice yields have been achieved, Iran is still dependent on rice imports. More than 75% of rural women in the Gilan Province are engaged in agricultural activities. But, Iran’s extension service has been ineffective in reaching rural women farmers. In particular, limited access to extension programs by women rice producers has restricted further gains in rice production. Factors associated with participation of rural women in rice production activities in the Gilan Province were studied. Using cluster sampling procedures, 142 rural women farmers were selected. It was found that size of rice field, income, and education levels of rural women farmers affected their participation in rice production activities. Opportunities for the extension service to better meet the unique educational and technological needs of rural women rice farmers are suggested.