Until recently, a tendency among agricultural research institutions (national and international) and non-governmentalorganizations was to independently involve farmers and rural community actors in technology development andextension. Inter-institution partnerships between non-governmental organizations, international research andeducation institutions, and rural community stakeholders were either not common or well documented. Theimplications of this tendency takes on even greater significance in the current environment of declining fiscalsupport for international research and extension and increasing globalization of products and markets in whichopportunities and potentials for marginal/peripheral communities remain highly uncertain.

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